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Log In Sign Up. Restoration of serial buildings: Zamperini Dipartimento di Ingegneria Edile e del Territorio. Abstract Due to the progressive abandonment of Italian military buildings, a heterogeneous whole distributed all over the national territory, it makes deep sense to study this considerable heritage, in order to re-function them and re-adjust the principal local and territorial realities.
Object of study are the barracks built from the unity of Italy until the Second World Warthose show high quality in construction and serial characteristics in morphology, layout, structural planning and constructional techniques. It is a considerable heritage, including the properties destined to national defence and properties linked to logistic and support needs: Among these properties, of particular interest are the barracks, many abandoned or in the course of abandonment also following the suspension of service; Ingegneria militare yahoo dating constitute an important factor of development and re-adjustment for the principal local and territorial realities.
The abandonment procedures already started concern so far military properties, to which more will be added in the course of ; among these buildings converted for military use after the unity of Italysuch as ex-convents turned into barracks, and also quarterings built between and according to a series of prototypes, and spread across the territory of the state, no longer suitable to fulfil the Ingegneria militare yahoo dating needs due to technological evolution and the updating "Ingegneria militare yahoo dating" the defence model.
The quality of the constructions and the serial characteristics of these barracking sites, makes them an interesting subject of study with the aim of rationalising the process of reconversion of property and areas, to re-introduce them into a new functional context. The complexes are generally very large and the individual buildings are of considerable proportions, on the scale of hectares for the areas and hundreds of meters for the buildings.
Ingegneria militare yahoo dating, the suitable position in the urban fabric, often on the perimeters of the historical centres and along the principal ring roads, the size of the free areas,
Ingegneria militare yahoo dating formal dignity and the state of conservation of the buildings, the internal distribution rationality, the large dimensions of the environments and the regularity and modularity of the spaces and structures constitute important values to be developed in the environment of urban contexts in which the barracks are present.
The organization of the buildings on the inside of the plot respects the modalities codified in the military manuals following a precise hierarchy, without neglecting the functional and hygienic and sanitary needs. As such, the barracks are substantially referable to few structure typologies in slow but continual evolution, even though the division between the types is not always distinct.
These solutions, even though they were flexible and adaptable to various contexts and conformations of the plot, allowed for a limited variability in the definition of the morphology of the structure, which as Ingegneria militare yahoo dating assumed easily recognisable organised configurations. In any case, the buildings always assume a specialised function, along with the headquarters and barracks housing, common to all the corps, are always present, in relation to the entity and the type of military body adquartered cavalry, artillery, infantry, special corpsother buildings designed for finishing and services, such as stables, laboratories, kitchens, riding schools, warehouses for carts and large armaments, canopies, gymnasia.
Modular structure of the buildings Each type of building was planned according to typological and dimensional criteria, based on hygienic and functional studies, represented in prototypes line with structural models characteristic to the constructional techniques of the age.
Barracks housing and stables, intended for the lodging of troops or horses, are defined by large volumes, articulated in various modular, environmental units, replicated numerous times. The dimensions of the modules were determined "Ingegneria militare yahoo dating" reasons of the following kind: The dormitories, repeated and aggregated together with accessorial modules - vertical adjoinments, orderly rooms, hygienic services - form a large body structure: The dimensions of the stables are defined according to a scheme analogous to that of the dormitories: Until aboutthe stables were often placed on the ground floor of the dormitories; in this case the difference in the depth of the environments required specific constructional solutions, in order not to modify the dimensions considered ideal for the dormitories and stables.
A solution proposed in , and used at length, consisted of the offsetting of the modules, placing a row of columns in the stable on the separation line between posts and the aisle, to support the dividing walls of the floor above fig.
The constructional modular structure and typification also concern the complementary buildings, particularly the riding schools and the warehouses. The riding schools require united environments of large dimensions untilfrom 18 m x 38 m to 21 m x The buildings are always constituted of the iteration of standardised modules of m depth of the body structure by m; these dimensions represent the "Ingegneria militare yahoo dating" distance between each masonry pillar, laid out in correspondence to the covering structures, between which walls with large openings for ventilation and lighting are placed.
The language adopted and the choice of materials correspond to the necessity to make characteristics of military discipline and sobriety explicit, stressing the need for durability of the constructive elements in the time, and favouring the technical and economic issues against purely aesthetic research.
Seriality of the constructional techniques The standardisation of the projects is clear also on the constructional level, on the basis of planning examples already developed, also in the constructive detail and in the examinations of statistics or tables and graphs for the structural calculations, published in the military press and in manuals for the Artillery and Engineer Schools. In the analysed period, in line with civil construction, there was therefore a progressive passage from traditional constructional techniques elevation masonry structures, vault or wooden ceilings, wooden coverings and modern ones use of steel and reinforced concrete, initially only for ceilings and covers, then for frame elevation structures ; to this transition the passage from planning according to empirical criteria to dimensions based on the theory of the Ingegneria militare yahoo dating of material occurred.
Particularly precocious, relative to the Italian constructional world, was the use of reinforced concrete, thanks to the study of certain officials in particular Crescentino Caveglia and Emilio Marrullier who elaborated patents and calculations,
Ingegneria militare yahoo dating promoted the use of this constructive technique with certain widespread publications , also in civilian circles.
For each type of building, in relation to the spaces and loads, more suitable technical solutions were proposed and the admissible variations when the local conditions the type of land, cost of materials, suitability of the workforce rendered the standard solution unsuitable or impossible.
In the warehouses and riding schools, in which the elevation structures Ingegneria militare yahoo dating of pillars and interposed walls, pillar foundations with arches supporting the walls were often used, a solution also suitable for the other buildings, when the resistant terrain was at a depth of m; the use of posts was very rare. The wall structures, made from bricks or irregular stones and courses of bricks muratura listata accompanied by squared stone elements at points of major stress bases and capitals of pillars, columns, lintels of windowswere often left visible to obtain the double objective of a craftsmanlike masonry and high aesthetic quality.
At first, the ceilings were made predominantly with vaults on the lower floors, and with wooden floors on the attic, to avoid thrusts on the masonry ; subsequently the use of steel I beams was introduced, coupled with small brick vaults, initially only in the atticthen also on intermediate floors ; finally, reinforced concrete floors were progressively used from onwards.
Various type of trusses Ingegneria militare yahoo dating in military buildings approximate scale ratio 1: Already at the end of the s, the use of steel purlines is common with I or reticular beams and from the early s, reinforced concrete purlines were also used. Critique and possible solutions The military complexes, that reach us relatively unchanged with respect to the original concept, constitute an important historic, technological and cultural testimony, but also a property heritage of high planning, economic and strategic potential to be developed.
Some criticisms of the reconversion process need to be addressed, linked to the need to adapt to modern security and accessibility regulations, to the assessment of technological compatibility due to the performance of the technical and structural elements
Ingegneria militare yahoo dating, to the conditions of environmental wellbeing and the control of energy consumption, to the sustainability of the new functions in relation to the constraints of the buildings and their context.
The seriality of the barracks, meant as a standardisation of the structure, the buildings, the constructional techniques and the methods of structural make it possible to approach the theme of re-use through a methodological, meta-project approach, capable of transcending the specificity of each individual barracks structure without neglecting the particular characteristics of eachextending the significance of Ingegneria militare yahoo dating analysis and the planning proposals across a vast territorial system.
Guidelines or abaci of compatible solutions can in fact be defined for the and the technological and structural recovery of these complexes; it is particularly useful if the operations on the military structures are not treated on the individual scale, but rather through an extended project system consisting of numerous quarters spread over the territory.
On the other hand, the distributive rationality, the regularity and modular structure of the spaces and the structures on supporting walls, the inherent flexibility in the buildings offer solid opportunities for new eventual uses for private and public use, respecting the original characteristics of the buildings and their architectural and constructional value: Remember me on this computer.
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