X is the windowing system for Unix. By running Xyou can have several windows on the screen open at once, each devoted X win32 free alternative dating a different task. For example, you can be reading electronic mail in one window while a lengthy compilation is running in another. X also allows the display of graphics and of a variety of fonts.
Most of the time, you are less interested in Windows than in the programs that you are running under it. The reason that X is of interest in this course is that X was designed, from its beginnings, for remote use. To use X, you need to run two different programs.
One is an X serverthe program that is responsible for controlling the display of your local machine. The server must run X win32 free alternative dating the machine at which you are seated — its job is to actually draw things on your display and handle mouse and keyboard inputs.
The other is an X clientwhich is an application program that was compiled to work with X.
The client program might be running on your local machine e. This assumes, of course, that you have server software installed on your local PC or are carrying a portable X server on a flash drive.
You may also need software to launch the remote application. Sometimes this comes with the server software. If not, almost any ssh software will do. The course Library page has tips on what X servers and ssh programs are recommended, particularly for Windows PCs, and how to get them.
X is a windowing system that can present a number of different appearances to the user. The appearance and behaviors that you actually see is controlled by a window managera program that is generally run as part of the X start-up procedure. A window manager controls both cosmetic details like the colors used for window borders and other control elements, but also what elements actually appear on each window e.
Compare to Figure 2which shows the same programs running under the ICE window manager. Of
X win32 free alternative dating, if you are sitting at a machine that already runs a windowing operating system, then you can usually just use that as your X window manager. Figure 3 shows those programs running under a version of X that uses MS Windows
X win32 free alternative dating its window manager.
You can see a number of different window managers in action here. One thing should have been obvious from the examples above is that, in X, you are sending a lot more than just plain text from the remote machine to your local PC. Graphics will require a lot more bytes than text, and it takes time to transmit those bytes. To send a line of text under X, the remote machine may need to send information on what font to render the text in, and may in some cases even need to send the font itself to your PC.
If even ordinary text-mode connections seem slow to you, you will have real difficulties running X. When we talk about connection speed to the Internet, most Internet service providers ISPs only talk about how many bytes per second they can ship to you. But programming activities tend to be highly interactive. Think of the Internet as a hose or a series of tubes carrying water.
X dates back to a time when networks were far less reliable and packets of information were often lost during transmission. The remote X client sends a packet of information, then waits for your X server to acknowledge that the packet was received and is correct before sending the next packet. That means that latency is at least as important as bandwidth in determining how well X will work for you.
Ideally, you would have an ISP that gives you both high bandwidth and low latency. Some cable services and DSL will give you that. Dial-up services are fairly low bandwidth, but the better ones offer very low latency and so may be OK with X.
These bounce their data streams off a satellite in orbit. Even at the speed of light, this adds a lot of time to the delivery of each byte. Satellite broadband can offer high bandwidth, which is good, but they also frequently have very high latency. Even text-mode connections can be painful on a satellite broadband service. You hit Enter and wait…. Satellite broadband may be fine for web browsing, email and even for streaming audio or video because, once the data stream gets going, it just flies.
But most programming tasks are interactive, so latency X win32 free alternative dating more critical for programming students. Luckily, there is an option for people with moderately high-latency connections. In the sections that follow, we will cover both ordinary X and NX.
X may be your better choice when connecting from on campus. NX is usually a better bet when connecting from off-campus. Others keep them as two distinct steps, or give you an option of one step or two.
Often, the first remote client program you will launch is xtermwhich provides you a window into which you can type commands, much like an ordinary ssh session. You can then use those commands to launch more visually interesting applications. The course Library page has tips on what X servers packages are recommended, particularly for Windows PCs, and how to get them for free!
Earlier I discussed how X tends to be very sensitive to latency in your network connection to the remote machine. In practice, if you are running anything more visually complicated than emacsthis will be a real problem unless you are on the same local network as the local machine.
In other words, if you are connecting to a CS Dept machine from off-campus, you are going to find X frustrating slow. In practice, I have seen a more than ten-times speedup using X win32 free alternative dating X variants. If you are or are likely to be connecting to our network from off-campus, use an accelerated X package.
There have been many attempts to define accelerated versions of X. The first to really see widespread use was NX 3a protocol invented by the NoMachine corporation. NoMachine sold servers for NX 3, and made clients available for free, X win32 free alternative dating protocol and some of their server code was released to the Open Source community, so other free servers and clients became available.
Others in the open source community have refined the NX 3 protocol further. One of the most popular derivatives from NX 3 is called X2Go. X2Go "X win32 free alternative dating" my recommended way for most people to use X on our servers.
Go to the Library page for information on how to obtain the X2Go client and install it on your local machine. With X2Go you will be launching the X server on your local machine and a client program on the remote machine in one step. The first time you run the client, you will see a main window looking like this. The left column is used to present information on your current remote connection. The right column shows the session presets that you have
X win32 free alternative dating and saved.
Initially, both will be empty. Fill in your CS Dept. Your new session settings will appear in the right column. I recommend creating one session setup for each of our Linux servers, so that if one machine is down or overloaded, you can switch to the other. If you later want to change some of the settings or remove themthere is a small triangular button on the lower right of a settings that drops down a menu allowing you to modify your settings.
From the main X2Go client window, click on a session settings box in the right column to open a connection to the remote machine. You can take advantage of this deliberately to stop work for a little while by "X win32 free alternative dating" down the X2Go client, then reconnect later and pick up from where you left off. If you are running a Linux PC and see windows, menus, etc. Linux is an option for MS Windows users as well.
You can get Linux distributions that can be booted and run from a CD or a flash drive. Later this became a package that was provided on some Mac models but not others. On these systems, your X server is always running. So you just need to launch a client program on a remote machine.
You can do this via ssh. An xterm window should open up within a few seconds. Commands that you type into this new window are being run on the remote machine. For example, if you type.
For example, I have. Then I can launch a remote xterm by simply typing the machine name. It is installed on most of the CS Dept.
A dialog box should "X win32 free alternative dating" up listing known connections. If you are working on a lab machine, there may be some connections pre-defined. If none of the connections are what you want, click the Wizard… button to start defining a new connection.
Select your newly created connection, and click the Launch button. You should also see a small blue X icon in your taskbar tray. If you want more applications on the same remote machine, launch them from that xterm.
If you exit from that xterm, you will see that even after it closes, X is still running — the X icon will still be in your taskbar tray. Right-clicking on this will bring up a menu. You can launch a new xterm by X win32 free alternative dating selecting this.
X win32 free alternative dating future sessions, if you rerun the X-Config program, you will find your new connection listed and you can simply select it and click the Launch button. Alternatively, you can run X-Win32 instead of X-Configthen right-click on the taskbar icon and select the saved connection from the menu.
There are a few different ways to launch a client with xming. Franz is a free messaging app /former emperor of Austria, that combines chat You can download Franz for free for Mac & Windows.
Is Franz open source?. Lazarus is a professional open-source cross platform IDE powered by Free Pascal. X-Win32 is the most advanced PC X server on the market. An advanced terminal that gives Windows users a powerful, Unix-like command-line experience.
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