My latest acquisition highlights not only the insight Roman coins can provide into murky historical events "Phaedimus latino dating" which our contemporary sources are often lacking but also their critical role as socio-political propaganda, affirming an imperial-approved historical narrative.
Silver denarius of Hadrian, Phaedimus latino dating CE, 3. The silver denarius bears one of the first numismatic portraits of Hadrian, shown in his early forties, and commemorates his adoption by the Emperor Trajan in CE; a much-scrutinised event that has maintained a tarnish of controversy over the centuries.
Leaving the situation in the evidently capable hands "Phaedimus latino dating" Hadrian, his cousin and fellow Spaniard, the imperial entourage boarded yachts at Seleucia Pieria at the mouth of the Orontes and set sail back to Rome in the summer of CE. Yet no one could deny the imperial favour Hadrian had clearly enjoyed over the years: Most objective observers agree that, despite Phaedimus latino dating gossip no doubt peddled by hostile elements in the Senate, Hadrian was the clear and logical choice of successor.
In a design, not seen before or after, the actual moment of adoption is shown, with Trajan and Hadrian clasping hands and exchanging the necessary documentation; a scene that almost certainly never took place. The fact this unique coin design was required at all shows us Hadrian clearly felt the need to publically and definitively tackle simmering conspiracy theories concerning his accession.
The 41 year old Hadrian is shown wearing cuirass armour, emphasising his military background, somewhat in contrast to the intellectual reputation he would later cultivate. Such titles would gradually be removed from his coinage as he became more established on the throne, as would other ostentatious signs of imperial power such as the laurel wreath. Though minted in a time of great stability and relative peace, the coin reveals an underlying anxiety about the very nature of imperial power and the exact manner in which it could be gifted to a a problem the Romans were never to solve fully.
It also Phaedimus latino dating a clear awareness of what rulers have found out the hard way for millennia; that the critical moment when Phaedimus latino dating power is being passed on, is when it is at its most exposed and vulnerable. Collectors of ancient coins soon learn to see themselves, not as owners, but temporary custodians of their beloved miniature works of ancient art. As with all antiquities, when a coin is unearthed a new chapter of its history begins and this modern tale can often be as enthralling as any ancient one.
More than ever, a secure, interesting and long term provenance adds huge appeal to the collector. Even a common coin in average condition is elevated in every aspect by a confirmed modern history. Denarius of Trajan, CE, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust r Rev:
Phaedimus latino dating Clain Stefanelli of the Smithsonian. The denarius of Trajan began its modern life in the collection of the Adams familythe prominent Massachusetts political family that of course gave us the 2nd and 6th Presidents of the United States, John Adams and John Quincy Adams Upon his death in Sawhill collection was bequeathed to the James Madison University who then auctioned it, again through Stacks in March The coin then passed into the hands of Elvira Clain-Stefanellilong-time curator of the Phaedimus latino dating Numismatics Collection at the Smithsonian.
Here is an Phaedimus latino dating from the obituary of Mrs Clain-Stefanelli:. Born in Bucharest, Romania, at the beginning of World War I, she and her family were forced to flee their village to avoid invading troops.
At the end of the "Phaedimus latino dating," she returned home to the disputed territory between Austria and Romania. In she married Vladimir Clain-Stefanelli, a postgraduate student in Rome, who specialized in ancient coins. Although pregnant, Elvira chose to join her husband in the camp.
She later was released so their child would not be born in prison; however, after experiencing the bombings in Berlin, she returned to the camp, thinking it safer. Surely a Phaedimus latino dating worthy of a more official biography? After her death inthe personal collection of the Clain-Stefanellis was dispersed to be enjoyed and studied by collectors around the world and pieces continue to fill lots at auctions.
This is coin collecting is at its most satisfying: The silver denarius was the workhorse of the Roman numismatic system. The most common denomination minted for many "Phaedimus latino dating" centuries and the perfect value coin with which to pay salaries and manage everyday transactions. Roman coin collecting, are often surprised how easy it is to acquire a silver denarius of a well known emperor for their collections. As a general rule, emperors who ruled for many years had longer to mint their coins, which will therefore survive in greater numbers than an emperor who ruled for months or even weeks.
Caligula so rarity of these rulers is understandable. Yet the coinage of one famous emperor presents a unique conundrum to modern numismatists; a mystery I was reminded of upon seeing a particular numismatic beauty that has recently come up for auction:.
Another thing new coin collectors quickly learn is that unless they have recently won the lottery or are happy to part with a kidney, Phaedimus latino dating should lower their expectations of ever getting a genuine silver coin of the fourth emperor and conqueror of Britannia: Why is it far easier to find a denarius of emperors that ruled for mere months such as Galba, Otho and Vitellius, successive emperors 69 CEthan it is to find a denarius of Claudius who ruled for 13 years?
Various theories have been put forward to try and explain the tiny amount of Claudian denarii survived through the ages but none seem to provide a clear answer. In the meantime, I have for sale: Though the aureus was the same size as the denarius, the increased density of gold gave it twice the weight, usually between grams in the first century.
The practical usage of the aureus in antiquity is still debated but its high value and small size meant that it was:. The dating of the hoard is another singular aspect that makes it stand out amongst the hoards of Roman Britain. Such hoards have given us an immense amount of historical knowledge and usually speak of the increasing instability of Britannia through the 4th and into the 5th centuries. The Didcot Hoard on the other hand, dates from a Phaedimus latino dating much more stable period.
Represented are the Flavian dynasty: As the latest coin in the hoard dates from CE, the final year of the reign of Antoninus Pius, it has been proposed that perhaps the hoard represents a donative on the accession of the new emperor, Marcus Aurelius. The fact that the hoard was equivalent to We can never know why exactly an individual buried this pot of gold in rural Oxfordshire two millennia ago but we can theorise:.
Is this a donative from Marcus Aurelius to an official of Roman Britain, who buried it for safe keeping but died soon after? Or are these simply just the savings of a rich local or a very prudent Roman soldier? What do "Phaedimus latino dating" think? Caligula Denarius Found with Metal Detector. Frank, a member of our Julio Claudian group was blessed enough to find this silver denarius with Germanicus reverse. I did not want to lose the information so I finally got around to putting into the Juio Claudian pool, Amazing find Frank!!
Could you imagine finding a piece of Julio Claudian history in the terra! Here are some details of the find. In fact, this denarius of Caligula is part of a small treasure of 20 denarii, scattered over a small area of Phaedimus latino dating scrub land, near the ancient roman city of Nemausus today Nimes.
Thanks to the calcarious soil the coins did not suffer corrosion. Besides some broken roman tiles, the area was virgin. It was evidently a site where was located a small country house, modest in all ways and deserted ever since the first century AD.
Through the wear of the coins…. View original post more words. In the palace his stay was but a short one but he was considerate of his family, well-dressed, elegant in appearance, a man of regal beauty, with a countenance that commanded respect, a speaker of unusual eloquence, deft at writing verse, and, moreover, not altogether a failure in public life.
In the twilight Phaedimus latino dating of his life, settled back in Rome after travelling the known world and becoming increasingly isolated and irascible, the aging Emperor Hadrian finally faced the question that stalks all ailing rulers: Like his predecessors Nerva and Trajan, his marriage had given him no natural heirs, so in the praiseworthy tradition of the time he cast his eye about for the most worthy candidate for adoption.
Servianusa three-time consul who had married into the imperial family had all the credentials but was now 90 years of age. Servianus and his grandson felt they had such a right to the throne they may have even attempted a coup; Hadrian quickly ordered both their deaths. So it was that in CE, with perhaps a hint of desperation, Hadrian settled on and publically adopted his chosen successor; a 35 year old senator named Lucius Ceionius Commodus.
Lucius was as blue blooded as anyone could hope his father was consul in CE but remained a surprising choice. His father-in-law had been the great Gaius Avidius Nigrinustrusted lieutenant of Trajan, whom Hadrian had executed less than a year into his reign on charges of treason. Lucius also lacked any type of military experience to his name. In a time of great tension at the borders of the Empire, this must have been a hotly debated decision.
Yet to the paranoid and envious mind of the emperor, the fact that Lucius was not a dazzling general was likely a point in his favour.
Even if the future of the Empire was at stake, Hadrian was not going to let himself be eclipsed. Hadrian spent million sesterces on publically celebrating the adoption with gifts to the public and military, as well as putting on lavish games in the circus. Aelius was indeed a bright, young hope. Coin portraits of the time show a young man with a strong, handsome profile and a discerning stare, older than his years. The beard of the philosopher, brought back into fashion by Hadrian, is grown out even further, styled with ornate curls.
His decadent appearance set the trend for the next 50 years, a clear precursor to the exaggerated opulent appearances of his son Lucius Verus and his co-emperor Marcus Aurelius. The imagery of his coinage likely decided upon by Hadrian celebrates notions of piety, security and harmony of a Roman world with a definite future.
Even on the occasion of his adoption he was taken ill and unable to give his speech of thanks to the Senate. Neverthless, Aelius was made consul for CE and packed off to Pannonia to cut his teeth with a governorship. He was by all accounts a fan of the luxurious recipes of Apicius, and enjoyed designing evermore luxurious dishes Phaedimus latino dating his own.
Aelius made it back to Rome from his province but following an overly large dose of medicine, died on January 1 st CE. The prevailing modern view is that Aelius had, in fact, been suffering from Tuberculosis, one of the most dominant diseases in the ancient world and one that affected members of all classes. It also seems an alternative arrangement for succession was being made whilst Aelius was alive. Hadrian put forward a remarkable new plan for the future of his dynasty, nominating not only his new successor — a mild-mannered senator named Antoninus — but also the two after that, who "Phaedimus latino dating" demanded should rule concordantly, a first in the Imperial age.
Lucius Aelius Caesar is an interesting figure in the history of the time, largely ignored by writers. His brief touch with greatness afforded him little chance to make his mark on history but in him we can glimpse an Phaedimus latino dating alternate timeline.
In what direction would the Emperor Aelius have steered the Empire?
For better or for worse, his reign would surely have been filled with more incident than his ever-dependable replacement Antoninus Pius. Would the philosopher-emperor Marcus Aurelius have still found his way to the Phaedimus latino dating Such are the tantalising questions raised by the short but notable life of this forgotten prince.
The ascendancy of the Roman Empire is strikingly represented through the architectural wonders conceived during the Pax Romana. The importance of civic and military buildings as both symbols of authority and essential tools in the proliferation of Roman-ness cannot be These towns and temples, forums and baths are usually synonymous with the emperor that ordered their construction.
Indeed, many edifices from the Roman world seem to modern eyes, so inspired, so eternal, that it is almost as if they sprang into existence themselves or were perhaps gifted to the world by the pantheon of gods they honoured. It is easy to forget the fact that, just like today, every construction was designed by a human hand, and behind the bronze emblazoned names of the emperors, Phaedimus latino dating the name of an architect, all too often forgotten to history.
Phaedimus, who had presumably travelled with Trajan throughout the East, Latin transcript: M(arco) Ulpio Aug(usti) lib(erto) Phaedimo / divi Traiani the exact date of Phaedimus' death which occurred on August 12 in the.
An attendant of Trajan's, Marcus Ulpius Phaedimus, also died at Selinus a few days War I and teacher of Latin, Greek and German at the James Madison University. The dating of the hoard is another singular aspect Phaedimus latino dating makes it stand out. Phaedimus boudanti [show article only]hover over links in text for more info The evolutionary ancestry of arthropods dates back to the Cambrian period, the.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum, a calque of Greek ἔντομον [éntomon], "cut.