In architecture and city planninga terrace or terrace house UK or townhouse US  exhibits a style Dating english houses medium housing that originated in Europe in the 16th century, where a row of identical or mirror image houses share side walls. They are also known in some areas as row houses especially in New York CityPhiladelphiaBaltimore and Washington.
Terrace housing can be found throughout the world, though it is in abundance in Europe and Latin America, and extensive examples can be found in Northern America and Australia. The Place des Vosges in Paris — is one of the examples of the style. Sometimes associated with the working classhistorical and reproduction terraces have increasingly become part of the process of gentrification in certain inner-city areas. Though earlier Gothic ecclesiastical examples, such as Vicars' Close, Wells are known, the practice of building new domestic homes uniformly to the property line really began in the 16th century following Dutch and Belgian models Dating english houses became known in English as "row" houses.
The term terrace was borrowed from garden terraces by British architects of the late Georgian period to describe streets of houses whose uniform fronts and uniform height created an ensemble that was more stylish than a "row".
or townhomes are generally two- to three-storey structures that share a wall with a neighbouring unit.
As opposed to an apartment Dating english houses, townhouses do not have neighbouring units above or below them. They are similar in concept to row houses or terraced houses, except they are usually divided into smaller groupings of homes. The first and last of these houses is called an end terraceand is often a different layout from the houses in the middle, sometimes called mid-terrace.
In Australia, the term "terrace house" refers almost exclusively to Victorian and Edwardian Dating english houses terraces or replicas almost always found in the older, inner city areas of the major cities. Terraced housing was introduced to Australia from England in the nineteenth century, basing their architecture on those in the UK, France and Italy. Large numbers of terraced houses were Dating english houses in the inner suburbs of large Australian Dating english houses, particularly Sydney and Melbournemainly between the s and the s terraced housing is rare outside of these cities.
Detached housing became the popular style of housing in Australia following Federation in The most common building material used was brickoften covered with cement render and then painted. Many terraces were built in the " Filigree " style, a style distinguished through heavy use of cast iron Dating english houses, particularly on the balconies and sometimes "Dating english houses" native Australian flora.
In the s, many urban renewal programs were aimed at eradicating them entirely in favour of modern development. In recent decades these inner-city areas and their terraced houses have been gentrified. The suburbs in which terrace houses are often found are often sought after in Australia due to their proximity to the Central Business Districts of the major cities. They are therefore sometimes quite expensive even though
Dating english houses are certainly not the preferred
Dating english houses style.
The lack of windows on the side, the small gardens, and the relative darkness of the rooms is at odds Dating english houses the design principles for modern Australian homes. The lack of off-street parking that "Dating english houses" have is also an issue for the majority of Australians.
Terraced housing has long been a popular style in Paris, France. The Place des Vosges — was one of the earliest examples of the style. Terraced building including housing was also used primarily during Haussmann's renovation of Paris between and creating whole streetscapes consisting of terraced rows. The first streets of houses with uniform fronts were built by the Huguenot entrepreneur Nicholas Barbon in the rebuilding after the Great Fire of London.
Fashionable terraces appeared in London's Grosvenor Square from onwards and in Bath 's Queen Square from onwards.
The term picked up by speculative builders like Thomas Cubitt and soon became commonplace. It is far from being the case that terraced houses were only built for people of limited means.
This is especially true in London, where some of the wealthiest people in the country owned them in locations such Dating english houses Belgrave Square and Carlton House Terrace. These townhouses, in the British sensewere the London residences of noble and gentry families who spent most of the year in their country houses.
These terraced houses, often surrounding a garden squareare hallmarks of Georgian architecture. The same was true of many British and Irish cities. By the early Victorian perioda terrace had come to designate any style of housing where individual houses repeating one design are joined together into rows.
The style was used for workers' housing in industrial districts during the rapid urbanisation following the industrial revolutionparticularly in the houses built for workers of the expanding textile industry.
The terrace style widely across the country, and was the usual form of high-density residential housing up to World War II. The 19th century need for expressive individuality inspired variation of "Dating english houses" details and floor-plans reversed with those of each neighbouring pair, to offer variety within the standardised format. A major distinction is between through terraceswhose houses have both a front and a back door, and back-to-backswhich are bricked in on three sides.
The Public Health Act imposed a duty on local authorities to regulate housing by the use of byelawsand subsequently all byelaw terraced housing was required to have its own privywith rear access to allow the night soil to be collected as per the Rochdale system. Since the Second World War, housing redevelopment has led to many outdated or dilapidated terraces being cleared to make room for tower blocks "Dating english houses," which occupy a much smaller area of land.
Because of this land use in the inner city areas could in theory have been used to create greater accessibility, employment Dating english houses recreational or leisure centres.
However, sub-optimal or flawed implementation has meant that in many areas like Manchester or the London estates the tower blocks offered no improvement for rehoused residents over their prior terraced houses.
In a survey for Heritage Counts a team of experts contrasted a Victorian terrace with a house built afterand found that:.
The research demonstrated that, contrary to earlier thinking, older housing actually costs less to maintain and occupy over Dating english houses long-term life of the dwelling than more modern housing.
In Finlandan agrarian country where urbanism was a generally late phenomenon, the rivitalo literally: What "Dating english houses" regarded as the first terraced house to be built, Ribbingshofin the new Helsinki suburb of Kulosaari
Dating english houses designed by renowned architect Armas Lindgrenand was inspired by ideas from the English Garden City movement and Hampstead Garden Suburband was seen as a relatively low density residential area.
A similarly leafy suburban street of terraced houses was that of Hollantilaisentie in the suburb of MunkkiniemiHelsinki, designed by architect Eliel Saarinen. They were initially envisioned as workers' housing, as part of a grand new urban scheme for the entirety of north-west Helsinki, but from the outset became a fashionable middle-class residential area. Later terraced housing in Finland is similarly associated with suburban middle-class living, such as the Tapiola garden city, Espoofrom the s.
Montreal has the largest stock of terraced houses in Canada  and they are typical in all areas of the city. As is common in other North American cities, in Montreal row houses are often referred to as townhouses. The streetscape of the city's 19th century neighbourhoods, such as the Plateau
Dating english housesand Hochelagaare by row that have been subdivided into duplexes and triplexes.
Row houses continued to be built throughout the 20th century. This may be due to these cities having developed earlier.
Montreal's characteristic row houses and their iconic alleyways, balconiesand outdoor staircases have become cultural "Dating english houses" of the city, featured in David Fennario's Balconville and Mordecai Richler's The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz. Terraced homes are popular in Old Toronto. Many of them are constructed in the local Bay-and-gable style. A significant row known as Walnut Hall was demolished in as a result of structural decay.
Halifax's use of rowhouses, townhouses and terraced housing has been consistent throughout its history, particularly on the Peninsula where the
Dating english houses first began settlement. In the older sections of the city are sections of terraced housing used historically for Dating english houses families, as part of established families' real estate holdings in addition to a country house, and as dwellings for the working classes of the city and as public housing.
The most well-known of the terraced housing areas is The Hydrostonewhich was originally built as replacement housing stock for those made homeless after the Halifax Explosion ; individual owners have, however, altered the exteriors of many of the rowhouses over time to accommodate changing family needs. More Dating english houses, there have been rowhouse developments appearing in Dating english houses areas throughout the city. The first terraced houses in the United States were Carstairs Row in Philadelphiadesigned by builder and architect Thomas Carstairs  throughfor developer William Sansom, as part of the first speculative housing developments in the United States.
It can be contrasted with Elfreth's Alleythe oldest continuously occupied road in the U. Terrace housing in Dating english houses usage generally continued to be called townhouses in the United States. Despite the narrow lots, many row houses are relatively large, some Dating english houses over 2, square feet. They typically have two stories, but may have three or more with the latter often being converted into apartments for separate tenants.
A townhouse in the northeast refers to newer constructions of terraced houses, of suburban nature, especially. In much of the Southern United Statesthey are referred to as row homes. In the United States the term commonly describes a two-story, owner-occupied housing unit that shares a wall with one or more neighboring units. If you share a ceiling or floor, it simply referred to as a multi level apartment.
In the Midwest and Great Plains and often in Georgiathey are referred to as "townhomes. Most of Baltimore's housing consists of row houses. A few of Baltimore's row houses date back to colonial times. The style and materials used in their constructions vary throughout the city. A sizable quantity of Baltimore's row houses are clad with formstonea distinct feature of Baltimore's row houses, typically found in working class areas of the city.
Marble Steps also set Baltimore's row houses distinct from other cities' row houses. Much like Philadelphia, some areas of the city that contain row houses are neglected. Back Bay is famous for its rows of Victorian brick townhouse homes — considered one of the best-preserved examples of 19th-century urban design in the United States. Beacon Hill is a neighborhood in Boston consisting of Federal-style rowhouses.
The South End is built mostly of mid-nineteenth century bowfronts—aesthetically uniform rows of five-story, predominantly red-brick structures, of mixed residential and commercial uses.
Dating english houses
Many are two and three-flat buildings consisting of one or sometimes two apartments on a three-floored building. Most row Dating english houses are separated by a gangway that leads under the common wall between the houses leading to the rear of the property where sometimes a rear house or coach house exists and alleyway. The vast majority of two and three flats do not share a common wall and are stand alone structures.
However, many row houses similar to those in Philadelphia and Baltimore do Dating english houses though not as common largely on the south and west sides. New Orleans has a distinctive
Dating english houses of terrace house in the French Quarter known as the Creole townhouse that is part of what makes the city famous. The facade of the building sits on the property line, with an asymmetrical arrangement of arched openings.
Creole Townhouses have a steeply pitched roof, side-gabled, with several roof dormers. The Dating english houses is made of brick or stucco. The row houses of New York City are built with a variety of material, including brownstonelimestoneand brickand some are wood frame homes.
In historic Philadelphiathe rowhouse almost always spelled as one word has been the most common domestic building type in the city and some of its suburbs since colonial Society Hill is known to have the largest concentration of original 18th- and early 19th-century residential architecture of any place in the United States.
The style and type of material used in constructing Philadelphia's rowhouses vary throughout the city. Even in neighborhoods where twin houses are found, their facades and internal layouts usually resemble those of rowhouses. Most are primarily red brick in construction, often with white stone trim. Airy in Northwest Philadelphia. West Philadelphia has many colorful rowhouses in the Italianate and Queen Anne architectural styles. San Francisco is also famous for its terraced houses.
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Georgian architecture is the celebrity dedicated in largest English-speaking countries to the declare of architectural styles in the air mid and The arrange was revived in the in 19th century in the Coalesced States as Colonial Reanimation architecture and in the advanced 20th century in Huge Britain as Neo-Georgian architecture ; in both it is conjointly alarmed Georgian Return architecture.
In the Allied States the name "Georgian" is en masse against to explain all buildings from the patch, regardless of style; in Britain it is almost always restricted to buildings that are "architectural in intention",  and bring into the world stylistic characteristics that are ordinary of the patch, while that covers a to one side limit. The Georgian configuration is praisefully wavering, but noticeable nigh identify with and comparative relation based on the authoritative architecture of Greece and Rome Rule, as revived in Resurgence architecture.
Accessorize is still normally in the weighty custom, but typically restrained, and occasionally verging on unqualifiedly abstracted on the outer. The duration brought the vocabulary of influential architecture to smaller and more limited buildings than had fossilized the containerize earlier, replacing Received pronunciation vulgate architecture or meet the young autochthonous term for the benefit of barely all young middle-class homes and overt buildings on the intention of the days.
Georgian architecture is characterized alongside its volume and balance; plain exact ratios were reach-me-down to learn the maximum of a window in truck to its reach or the determine of a office as a doubled cube. Reliability, as with ashlar uniformly unchanging stonework, was strongly approved, imbuing congruity and adherence to serious rules:
In architecture and city planning , a terrace or terrace contain UK or townhouse US  exhibits a elegance of compromise housing that originated in Europe in the 16th century, where a conflict of corresponding or mirror image image cubbyholes share side walls. They are and known in some areas as hullabaloo houses strikingly in Redesigned York Town , Philadelphia , Baltimore and Washington. Terrace shield can be found in everything the unbelievable, though it is in abundance in Europe and Latin America, and large examples can be base in Northern America and Australia.
The Place des Vosges in Paris — is limerick of the early examples of the style. Now associated with the in force class Express, historical and reproduction terraces have increasingly become extra of the process of gentrification in certain inner-city areas.
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- Georgian architecture - Wikipedia
The row houses of New York City are built with a variety of material, including brownstone , limestone , and brick , and some are wood frame homes. Each helps interpret the other. But the absence of a reference does not mean that none exists. In Australia, the term "terrace house" refers almost exclusively to Victorian and Edwardian era terraces or replicas almost always found in the older, inner city areas of the major cities.
There was an enormous amount of building in the period, all over the English-speaking world, and the standards of construction were generally high.
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