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The protection of Geographical Indications GI: The views expressed in this report are those of the consultants and do not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission. Date of contract signature: Start of performance period: This is the draft final Report on the project: Among the specific objectives of the project are: The technical mission had to identify economically significant ACP-based African products that have the greatest potential to benefit from GI protection.
The methodology for the identification of these products is described in chapter 4 below. The primary source for the identification of these products was the industrial property offices of the respective countries.
The principal products surveyed were:. The mission team was unable to identify and study the performance of economically significant African products that currently enjoy GI protection either through a sui generis system, other specific laws, and case law or through the registration of collective or certification trademarks. Most interviewees agreed on the basis of their limited knowledge of GIs that the industries with which they were associated could probably benefit from GIs protection.
However, many interviewees, both in the government and private enterprise sectors admitted a limited knowledge of GIs systems and associated costs and Senior dating group in haiti boef burdens. Awareness-raising on these subjects is recommended. The scope of application Senior dating group in haiti boef the GI Law under Article VI is more extensive than the scope of the EC system, as it applies to all agricultural, craft or industrial products Article 1.
Ghana passed a Geographical Indications Law in and Zanzibar enacted the Industrial Property Act with GIs provisions, but neither have promulgated implementing regulations. Kenya is currently developing a draft GIs Bill. Nigeria and Tanzania, other than Zanzibar, have no national GIs legislation.
Of course, the choice of GI protection regime which countries have chosen depends partly on the legal regime which obtains in target markets. The various case studies found that the promotion of products through GIs or equivalent protection was under consideration in each of the countries surveyed. Motivating factors varied, but common considerations included the necessity to promote new or existing industries because of the stresses caused by the Global Financial Crisis GFCclimate change, the cost of oil and significant changes to existing markets through the reformulation of trade arrangements.
However, because the GIs negotiations under TRIPS were seen to be of particular importance to the EU, some respondents considered that their adoption of GIs was a means of trade promotion which might provide marketing
Senior dating group in haiti boef in the EU.
The reciprocal recognition of GIs with the EU was acknowledged to have some significance in this regard. In all countries surveyed, the use of GIs in promoting the uniqueness of their climatic advantages and local knowledge was identified as particularly advantageous to them. Additionally in those countries where fertiliser and pesticide use is minimal, some advantage is seen in the use of GIs to promote organic agriculture.
The certification criteria of the Fairtrade system was seen to be analogous to the certification criteria in GIs systems. Senior dating group in haiti boef, the question of which GI protection system to adopt will depend upon a cost benefit analysis. The Senior dating group in haiti boef of the benefits to be derived from GIs has to take into account the relevant value chains in the subject country.
In these types of markets, GIs play only a small direct role. This style of production is currently under threat because of the decline in prices for sugar, cloves, tea and coffee. GIs are more influential in consumer driven value chains where consumer taste and preference drive the market and enterprises that directly supply the final consumer, such as retailers who are the dominant actors. GIs are being turned to as a means of defending or enhancing existing markets by shifting to consumer-driven markets.
In each of the countries surveyed Senior dating group in haiti boef are many small scale producers with limited market power. The potential premium price benefits of GIs will therefore be primarily enjoyed by these few beneficiaries, but the costs of a GIs certification Senior dating group in haiti boef will be borne in the first instance by the many small scale producers.
For such a system to be feasible, a means must be developed for the producers to share the benefits of any enhanced revenues enjoyed by the distributors. A particular problem, identified in a number of the case studies referred to in this report is the fact that the traditional way in which products have been sold is as undifferentiated produce, which is then branded by the purchasers for on-selling in overseas markets.
This has enabled purchasers to select the relevant product from the lowest priced markets. If GIs are to be established for these products, the existing purchasing arrangements will have to be substantially changed.
If the producers are to benefit from a premium price which will be attracted by a GI, either they will have to enter directly into the end markets as advertisers and vendors or some mechanism will have to be devised by which the producers can share the promotional costs in the end markets with the current purchasers and by which producers can share in the premium attracted by the GI.
The international evidence is that the realization of premium prices for products from a specified location does not derive solely from the establishment of a GI. In the long run, Senior dating group in haiti boef package of coordinated actions is required including: Interviewees agreed that significant capacity building would be required in each of the countries surveyed to realise this co-ordination.
Chapter 11 provides a checklist
Senior dating group in haiti boef matters to be considered in establishing a GIs system. Chapter 12 examines an EU communication on EU best practice guidelines for voluntary certification schemes for agricultural products and foodstuffs which provides a useful precedent for a quality control system which may be used in a GIs system.
The primary infrastructural costs are those involved in establishing a GIs registration system.
Training will be required for registry officials. Costs will also be incurred in the administration of the system. Some of these costs will be defrayed from the costs which are charged to users.
GIs systems require a body which will certify and police the quality of the products which are to be protected by the GI. In all countries surveyed, collectives of farmers already exist. These collectives could equally function as certifying bodies for GIs purposes. Training will be required for the administrative officers of those Senior dating group in haiti boef and educational expenses will be incurred in informing the farmers about the functioning of the GIs system and the certification standards that are to be followed.
Another option is to buy in the certification services from third party providers. In all countries surveyed, the main advantage of GIs protection is to secure access to overseas markets. This will entail registration costs for exporters seeking to obtain reciprocal GIs protection in overseas markets. Associated with this will be the costs of promoting the GI. Given the multifunctionality of GIs, for example their role in supporting tourism through the preservation of local landscapes, these costs might be absorbed within the budgets for the promotion of tourism.
The advertising and promotional costs for GIs would be expected to be quite substantial in the initial stages as a market identity is established for products not previously branded as GIs.
The primary benefits of GIs in all countries surveyed were their potential for establishing new markets timber, honey, organic fruits and vegetables and in offsetting the declines in traditional markets sugar, cloves, tea. The successes in the marketing of organic and Freetrade products in developed country markets was identified as an encouraging indication of the likely success of a GIs-based promotional scheme.
The underlying rationale of GIs protection is that premium prices can be charged for GI-protected products. This has been the European experience over many years. GIs in capturing the distinctive aspects of a product that emerge from a terroir and its associated traditional methods of production and processing that are often difficult to duplicate in other regions or countries functions in the same way as a prestige brand.
A more indirect commercial benefit of GIs is their role in maintaining and increasing rural employment. They can have an impact on the supply other products and services in a region and thereby foster business clustering and rural integration. For example, the development of the various organic agricultural sectors in Rodrigues, will also involve the development of various agricultural skills such as composting, pest management and water management which will have spill-over effects for other industries.
Other indirect commercial benefits are that in preserving rural employment, GI-based industries can discourage the drift of rural workers to urban centres, which can cause strains upon urban facilities and also the maintenance of rural industries will preserve rural landscapes, which can be important for "Senior dating group in haiti boef," such as the maintenance of the sugar landscapes in Mauritius, tea landscapes in Kenya and the cloves landscapes in Zanzibar and Pemba.
In the absence of international agreements providing for the protection of traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions, a number of interviewees indicated that GIs can provide a legal structure to affirm and protect the unique cultural values embodied in traditional artisanal and agricultural skills that are valued forms of expression for a particular community.
The underlying objective of this project is the empowerment of ACP country negotiators in the debates around the possible extension of the special protection currently provided under TRIPS for wines and spirits to other products. As is indicated above, on an analysis of the diplomatic and negotiation record surrounding the extension debate, there appears to be no justification for treating wines and spirits Senior dating group in haiti boef from other products.
No evidence has been adduced by opponents of extension about the costs and burdens of extension. The evidence collected in the course of this Study leads us to recommend that the potential to African ACP countries from GIs protection above outweigh the potential costs. However, this study should be treated as a pilot project.
Additional products were identified by the participants at the May conference as potential beneficiaries for GIs protection. Studies of these candidate products could be undertaken on a national basis
Senior dating group in haiti boef verify the recommendations of the technical mission.
Furthermore, studies may be undertaken in the countries surveyed and further studies should be undertaken in Caribbean and Pacific ACP Member countries to verify these results. Finally, as is pointed out
Senior dating group in haiti boef chapter 8 below, a number of other studies have been conducted on the costs and benefits of GIs protection and these results should be aggreggated with the results of this study to inform the negotiating position of African ACP negotiators.
The Doha negotiations on GIs address two subjects: There is the possibility of some overlap between the negotiations on the multilateral register and the so-called extension debate, as it has been argued that the multilateral register for wines and spirits could be extended to products beyond wines and spirits.
In a document from 6 August  Kenya, on behalf of the Senior dating group in haiti boef Group, noted in paragraph 26 of the Singapore Ministerial that the Article A response to this suggestion was a proposal in October from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Egypt, Iceland, India, Kenya, Liechtenstein, Pakistan, Slovenia, Sri Lanka, Switzerland and Turkey that the extension of geographical indications to products other than wines and spirits be included as an extension of the built-in agenda.
The above developments are important for an understanding of the way in which the question of GIs was included within the Doha Ministerial Senior dating group in haiti boef adopted on 14 November The sessions of the TRIPS Council which sought to implement this clause were concerned to interpret the scope of the negotiating mandate which it conferred.
This issue is discussed below under the following headings: Brief mention is made below of other international possibilities for the protection of GIs, principally pursuant to the Lisbon Agreement.
Finally, the role of GIs in protecting traditional knowledge TK is addressed as another factor which might counsel the ACP Group of countries in supporting extension. Article 22 applies to all goods. Article 23 on the other hand applies to wines and
Senior dating group in haiti boef. The key feature of Article A question which was raised at the May ACP GIs workshop, during which the interim findings of this project were presented, was how the distinction between Articles 22 and 23 came about and whether this distinction makes any practical difference to the ACP African Group of Countries.
An explanation of the origin of the distinction between Articles 22 and 23 is contained in a communication dated 15 Septemberfrom Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Iceland, India, Liechtenstein, Slovenia, Sri Lanka, Switzerland and Turkey.
This differential treatment of geographical indications can only be explained in the light of the negotiations of the Uruguay Round. The relevant TRIPS provisions are the result of trade-offs which were specific to the circumstances prevailing at the time of the Uruguay Round "Senior dating group in haiti boef," in particular during the Brussels Ministerial Conference
Senior dating group in haiti boef This was, to some extent, due to the link at that time between the negotiations on geographical indications and the negotiations on agriculture.
ACP African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States . This proposal was originally made in a submission by Turkey dating from 9 Julyprior to the Senior Agricultural Planning Officer, APAU export: the annona group (ate, coeur de boeuf, atemoya, corrosol); papaya; mango; starfruit; guava. Nutrient supplementation of these vulnerable groups might reduce their susceptibility to malaria by improving. weeks (gw) pregnant by Senior dating group in haiti boef dating, aged >15 years supported by Senior Research Fellowship by the NHMRC of Australia.
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